Terracotta Tiles
The installation of a Terracotta floor is carried out in five stages:
1. Laying the tiles
2. Sealing the joints
3. Washing
4. Finishing
5. Protection
 
Terracotta tiles can be laid using either adhesives or mortar.
With Mortar
even layer Clean away dust, debris or any greasy residues from the structural floor.
Spread an of mortar, to gut an even screed leveling. When laying tiles outdoors, we recommend that the foundation be inclined sufficiently to permit the run-off rainwater. An incline of no less than 1% is advisable.
Sprinkle the laying surface with a fine covering of cement powder. " Begin to lay the tiles, taking care to maintain the direction of the dod (the cut side of the tile should always correspond to the same side of the adjacent tile)
Leave a space between tiles. The width of this space is to be agreed in conjunction with the Site Supervisor and should not, in any case, be less than 10mm.
The flooring must have expansion joints, capable of compensating for tolerances caused by thermal movement. In the case of small indoor areas, it is sufficient to put in a joint along the outer perimeter of the room. In the case of larger areas however, it is advisable to put in a joint roughly every 7 meters, both the length and the width of the area. Outside, considering the increased exposition of the tiles to thermal movement, it is advisable to lay a 10 mm joint approximately every 4 meters both the length and the width of the area.
Tamp the floor evenly to ensure better tile adherence to the mortar bed.
   
With Adhesive
Ensure that the cement &sand Screed floor (ratio /port cement VS 3 port of sand) has been leveled perfectly and, when laying outdoors, that it has the necessary incline to permit the run-off of rainwater (no less than 1%).
Using a suitable trowel, spread an even layer of adhesive over the surface.
Lay the tiles before the adhesive begins to form a surface film upon contact with the air.
Leave a space of at least 10 mm between each tile.
Ensure that the flooring has the necessary expansion joints to compensate for the tolerances caused by thermal movement. Follow the same precautions for laying with mortar.
Tamp the floor evenly in order to ensure better tile adherence to the adhesive bed.
   
This operation is carried out to seal the joints left between tiles. Caution: Take care not to fill the expansion joints, if not with a suitable profile. Either a mix of sand and cement or a ready-made Grouting Material can be used for joint sealing.
 
Filling joints with a mixture of sand and cement (Traditional Grouting):
For joint widths between 10 and 12 mm:
Mix 100 l of clean silica sand with 60 kg of grey cement;
Using a suitable rubber trowel, spread this mix taking care to push down well between joints;
When the joints are still soft, remove the excess mortar by spreading an identical but dry mix over the whole surface;
Using a broomcorn brush, sweep the surface of the tiles vigorously;
Once residues have been removed, eliminate the excess mortar and using a damp sponge, shape the joints one by one.
Repeat the process until the tiles and properly cleaned.
   
Filling joints with a ready-made Grouting Material:
Ready-to-use caulking for terracotta tiles is easily found on sale. Whichever product is chosen which do not con, we recommend that the following precautions be taken:
It is advisable to use products tain either synthetic resins or polymers. These substances in fact, can penetrate the pores of the tiles, especially around the edges, where they cause staining which tends to remain even after the finishing process has been completed.
It is better to avoid markedly coloured products. In actual fact, such products have a tendency to be very difficult to remove once in contact with the tile surface and, should they penetrate the pores of the terracotta even slightly, a specialist intervention will be necessary to remove them.
   
Washing serves three different purposes:
The removal of grout residues left after the joints have been filled;
The removal of lime deposits caused by the presence of calcium salts both in the mortar used for tile laying and in the grout;
The elimination of deposits (brown stains, efflorescence, dark streaks), caused by the maturation of the material by the material (oxidation of its components).
   
Washing must be carried out when the floor is perfectly dry and in accordance with the following instructions:
Wash the floor using diluted acid solution (one of the recommended solution is Kemclean from Dribond);
Leave the solution upon the floor only for the time necessary to remove mortar residue from the tiles. In all cases, it is preferable not to leave the solution on the floor for any longer then 3 minutes. We would like to point out that a period of time is likely to cause the grouting mortar to weaken;
Once the acid solution has taken effect or the time limit is over, rinse the floor with plenty of water and quickly remove the residues.
   

The use of professional machines, such as the single-brush floor polisher or liquid vacuum cleaner which exert a more energetic action upon the floor, ensures that cleaning is more homogeneous and that washing liquids are more rapidly removed.

Should residues of mortar be found upon the floor after rinsing, the washing operation can be repeated in the same manner, increasing slightly the acid concentration of the cleaning solution if necessary.

 
Important: Avoid using non diluted acid solution to clean the floor.
 
Different finishing techniques are required for interior and exterior flooring and paving. We would like to remind you that in order to carry out a successful finishing process, it is necessary to wait until the floor is perfectly dry, both after washing and after each individual product application.
 
Waterproofing
Waterproofing serves to prevent possible liquids or oily substances, if spilt accidentally on the floor, from penetrating deep into the tile and thus affecting the aesthetic qualities of the floor itself.
Waterproofing means applying a waterproofing product such as Kemcote Natural from Dribond, once the floor is perfectly dry and with the use of a normal flat paintbrush. When applying this product, we would like to recommend that:
You begin the application of any product in the corner furthest away from the entrance in order to avoid walking over the floor to avoid walking over the floor before the product has been absorbed perfectly;
You avoid markedly passing over the same area with the product, as this could lead to the non-uniform absorption of the coat.
   
Exterior Paving (porches, swimming pools, terraces, gardens, etc.)

Terracotta products are frost-proof and resistant to thermal movement. Nevertheless, it is better to follow several basic rules in order to prevent, in extreme conditions, those incidents which can affect the aesthetic quality of the paving.

It is best to lay the tiles in mild weather conditions. During the laying stage, ensure that the tiles adhere perfectly to the foundation and that there are no cavities layer. Indeed, possible air pockets could cause an accumulation of humidity and if the temperature is very low, this will cause the tiles to come unstuck from their foundation.

Avoid laying the tiles upon structures (screed) which have not been settled definitively. Mechanical stress brought about by settling can cause serious cracking in the tiles. We recommend that expansion joints, filled with a good quality rubber profile, be inserted every 4/5 meters, especially in the case of larger areas or areas subject to thermal movement.

Prevent the arrival of humidity and salts from underlying or adjacent ground:

By avoiding direct contact between the terracotta and soil or grassy surfaces, laying the tiles a few centimeters higher than an adjacent lawn.
By ensuring that the screed floor has the proper drainage.
By using waterproof sheeting to protect paving from areas of water collection such as a swimming pool, guttering, etc.
By using a waterproof mortar to fill the joints, taking care to seal them uniformly and without cracks.
   
Prevent the collection of humidity upon the tiled surface:
By giving the paving the necessary incline for the perfect run-off of rainwater (at least 1%).
By ensuring that the paving is perfectly aired throughout the year (be careful of the nylon sheeting used to cover swimming pools during the winter; we recommend that strips of wood or of a thick fibre material such as sacking, be placed between the sheeting and the paving in such a way as to ensure air circulation).
   
It is advisable to wet the paving before laying with either mortar or adhesive. Paving which has been laid close to a swimming pool should be washed with an alkaline solution before the winter period, in order to remove any greasy residues.
 

Once the flour has been cleaned, it is very important to caver the flow with a plastic sheet and or plywood to protect it from any other possible sfaning by other trade works.

Important : All instruction above are mainly our recommendation . While every reasonable effort has been made to provide accurate information, Terracotta Tiles Center Sdn.Bhd shall not be liable for any errors, inaccuracies or omissions howsoever caused.